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Your first step to recovery

Osteoporosis

 

Osteoporosis is a condition which results in weak and brittle bones- to such degree that a fall or even mild stresses like coughing or bending over may result in a fracture. Bones are living tissues which are continually being broken down and replaced. However, your bones become osteoporotic when the formation of new bone does not keep up with the loss of old bone. This condition typically develops over time without any pain or other major symptoms, and is generally not diagnosed until you have sustained a fracture. The hip, pelvis, upper arm, spine and wrists are the most common structures affected by osteoporosis- related fractures.

 

 

How do you know if you have Osteoporosis?

 

Because there are no obvious early warning signs and symptoms, it is difficult to pre-diagnose osteoporosis. You may be unaware that you have this condition perhaps till you have one of the following:

  • Sustained a fracture from an incident more easily than you should have- like a simple fall or a bump
  • A decrease in the height of your spinal vertebrae over time
  • Change in posture – stooping or bending forwards
  • Back pain, due to a fractured or collapsed vertebra

Please see your doctor if you experience the following:

  • If you are over the age of 50 and have sustained a fracture
  • Sustained a spine, wrist, or hip for the first time
  • Sustained a fracture more easily than you should have (a simple fall or after a slight bump)

 

Risk factors

Key factors which may increase your risk of developing osteoporosis include:

  • Females- particularly post-menopausal Caucasian and Asian women
  • Over the age of 50
  • Excessive consumption of caffeine or alcohol
  • Smoking
  • Having a smaller or petite body frame
  • Poor physical activity levels and leading a very sedentary lifestyle
  • Family history of osteoporosis
  • Having low levels of vitamin D and poor dietary calcium intake
  • Decreasing levels of testosterone with ageing in men
  • Estrogen deficiency in women (irregular periods, early (before turning 40) or post-menopausal, surgical removal of the ovaries)
  • Use of long-term medication such as thyroid and epilepsy medications, corticosteroids
  • Having medical conditions such as gastrointestinal diseases; endocrine diseases; rheumatoid arthritis; cancer; and blood disorders

 

 

How will you be diagnosed?

Your doctor will review your signs and symptoms, family and medical history. You may be referred on for a specialized X-ray or CT scan to evaluate the bone density to help diagnose osteoporosis. Your bone density will be classified by comparing it to the typical bone density for a person of equivalent gender, size, and age.

 

 

How is Osteoporosis treated?

The treatment pathway chosen for the management of this condition is dependent on results of your bone density scan, gender, age, medical history and severity of the condition. Potential treatments for osteoporosis may include exercise, making positive lifestyle changes, vitamin and mineral supplements, and medications. Please consult your doctor for appropriate advice and treatment options.

 

 

How can Physiotherapy help?

 

Your physiotherapist will help you strengthen your bones and your muscles through a personalized and graduated rehabilitation program. Components of this rehabilitation program may include weightbearing aerobic exercises, resistance training using free weights/resistance bands/bodyweight resistance, and exercises to enhance posture, balance and body strength. Your physiotherapist will work with you to find activities that suit your needs and as per your physical activity level.

 

 

Managing your Medial Knee Pain: MCL injuries

What is it?

Although your knee has free movement going forwards and backwards, its’ sideward movements are restricted by the robust collateral ligaments on either sides of your knee. The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is situated on the inner part of your knee, but on the outside of your joint. The MCL connects the top of your shinbone (tibia) to the bottom of your femur (thighbone). It helps hold your bones together, provides stability and prevents your knee from bending sideways away from your body.

Injuries to the MCL are from the result of a direct blow to the outer part of your knee- and is most commonly seen in contact sports such as football and soccer. These injures may either over-stretch or cause a tear in the ligament. Whilst surgery may be needed in some severe cases, it is not always the go-to form of management.

Read on to know how physiotherapy can help manage your MCL related-knee pain.

 

 

Mechanism of Injury

Injury to the MCL typically occurs when a force drives the lower leg in a sideward direction away from your upper leg and body. Awkwardly landing from a height, twisting of your knee with your foot fixated to the ground, or from a direct blow to the outer part of your knee- most commonly seen in contact sports, are frequent causes of injury to the MCL.

 

 

Grading of MCL Injuries

MCL injuries are often graded using the system below:

Grade 1: Regarded as a minor injury- means that the MCL has been overstretched but not torn

Grade 2: Regarded as a moderate injury- means that there is a partial tear in MCL, and presents with some degree of instability in the knee

Grade 3: Regarded as a severe injury- means that the MCL has completely ruptured/torn, and presents with noticeable joint instability

 

Often 3 MCL injuries are associated with concurrent medial meniscus and ACL ligament damage, which may need surgical intervention. But, the good news is that most MCL injuries may be treated well with conservative physiotherapy management. It usually takes between 2-8 weeks for Grade 1 and 2 MCL injuries to heal, and a graduated rehabilitation programme is highly commended for prevention of future injury.

 

 

Signs and Symptoms

Because injury to the MCL may present with similar symptoms as with other knee injuries such as ACL damage, it is vital to have a medical professional such as your physiotherapist evaluate your injury.

Common symptoms of an MCL injury may include:

  • Tenderness and pain along in the inner part of your knee
  • Swelling in the knee
  • Experience catching and locking sensations in the knee joint
  • A ‘pop’ sound at the time of injury
  • Actual or feeling of giving way of the knee (often indicate grade 2 or 3 injury)

 

 

Diagnosis

Your physiotherapist will discuss your injury and its presenting symptoms, past medical history (including a history of any prior knee injuries) and will also undertake a thorough physical examination. During the physical examination, your physiotherapist will assess the structures of your injured knee and compare them to the non-injured side. The range of motion, strength and stability of your knee will be assessed. You may be referred on for imaging such as X-rays and Ultrasounds to help aid the diagnosis. For more severe MCL injuries, and if your symptoms do not resolve with conservative physiotherapy management, you may be referred onto a specialist who may consider referring you for an MRI to get a deeper look at your knee.

 

Management

The management options for MCL injuries will be dependent on the severity of the injury. In the initial stages of injury, management is focused on controlling swelling and pain, whilst allowing your body to initiate healing processes via inflammation. This is typically achieved through the P.O.L.I.C.E. principles (Protect, Optimal Loading, Ice, Compression and Elevation).

Over the counter medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol may be taken to reduce pain. Other stronger painkillers and NSAIDs may be prescribed by your doctor to help reduce swelling and inflammation as well.

After assessing your knee, your physiotherapist will frame a rehabilitation programme with exercises tailored to your needs. The purpose of physiotherapy is to help restore your knee’s range of motion, stability and strength, which in turn will then allow you to safely return to your usual day-to-day and sporting activities as soon as possible.

Management of most MCL injuries usually only involves knee bracing and physiotherapy treatment. However, in some cases, surgery may be recommended. Particularly if there is damage to more than one ligament or structure in your knee or if you continue to experience instability in spite of physiotherapy.

MANAGING FALLS IN OLDER ADULTS

Having a fall is dangerous at any age, however, they become more frequent and may most probably result in injury in adults 55 years and over. It is also estimated that in Aotearoa, approximately a third of older adults over the age of 65 sustain a fall every year. This leads to harmful consequences for them, especially for those who live alone. Alongside, sustaining serious injuries, you may face loss of independence, mobility and confidence. But!!! The good news is that there are a number of ways that you can reduce your risk of falling.

 

So Why Do Older Adults Have Falls?

  • Poor lower limb strength
  • Cognitive and functional impairment
  • Nutritional deficiencies
  • Prior and/or ongoing history of falls
  • Vision deficits
  • Balance or gait disorders
  • Medication related- especially when using anti-depressants, sedatives, anti-arrhythmics, anti-hypertensives, diuretics, and anti-convulsants
  • Hazards around your home environment such as loose carpets, slippery surfaces, poor lighting, lack of safety equipment particularly in the bathroom/toilet
  • Medical conditions such as vertigo, dizziness, diabetes, postural hypotension, drop attacks, and fainting spells

 

The Vicious Falls Cycle

Older adults who have had a fall may limit what they do because of their loss of self-confidence and fear of falling. Whilst this may seem like the most sensible thing for them to do, it increases their risk of falls. This is because, this leads to a further reduction in muscle strength, coordination and balance. Hence, it is healthier for older adults to keep up with their activities they enjoy as safely as they can, work on improving their muscle strength, coordination and balance, and manage their blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and weight under the guidance of their doctor.

 

 

Falls prevention tips

 

Below are some measures you may take to prevent yourself from falling:

Exercise regularly: A number of benefits include better sleep, improved muscle strength, balance and flexibility, increased energy levels, stronger bones, better management of weight, blood sugars and blood pressure. Exercise programs tailored especially for muscle strength and balance have resulted in a reduction in the number of falls and injuries resulting from falls by approximately 30% and 50%. It is advised that you speak to your doctor or physiotherapist before initiating or progressing your exercise levels.

Keeping your vision in check: Vision deficits makes getting around safely a lot harder. Therefore, you should get your eyes checked yearly and wear your contact lenses or glasses with the correct prescription strength.

Being aware of the effects of your medication: As they may have certain side effects that increase your risk of falls. You should review your medications with your doctor for side effects like drowsiness or dizziness.

Reduce hazards at home: Most falls typically take place at home. So be sure to make your home safer by removing tripping hazards, having adequate lighting, and adding in handrails in hallways and bathrooms/toilets.

Other tips:

  • Taking your time to get up and when moving around- no rushing!
  • Having a personal medical alarm (please talk to your doctor about how to get one)
  • Using a night light when you get up at night
  • Wearing appropriate, supportive and well-fitted shoes
  • Not using an easily moveable object to stabilise yourself
  • Using the support of handrails in bathrooms and hallways
  • Avoiding or being very careful on wet or slippery floors
  • Appropriately using your walking aids

 

If You Have Had a Fall

If you sustain a fall, it is vital for you to stay calm.

If you think you are able to get up safely, try to bend your knees, roll to your side, and attempt to get into a 4-point kneeling position. If there is a chair near by or if you are able to crawl towards one, you can use it as support to get yourself up. Please take your time and rest as needed.

If you are unable to get up safely, attempt to crawl or roll towards a phone. You may call out to other members in your household or your neighbour. If you’re at risk of falls, please do consider the use of a personal medical alarm to call out for help when you have a fall.

After a fall, please contact your doctor as soon as you can for an assessment of potential injuries sustained, muscle strength and balance to help prevent future falls. You may be directed to community or in-home sessions to enhance your balance and strength. Please discuss this with your doctors.

Dealing with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic inflammatory condition associated with swelling, pain, fatigue, and joint deformity. Although there are no known cures for this condition at present, a combination of treatments are available to help manage your symptoms. RA is the 2nd most common form of arthritis after osteoarthritis and is known to affect 1–2% of New Zealand’s population.

 

 

Signs and Symptoms

RA may develop very quickly or gradually over time, with its signs and symptoms, as well as the severity varying from one person to another. This condition is associated with episodes of remission and flare ups, with or without apparent triggers.

Other symptoms may include

 

  • Swollen, tender joints- (often accompanied by warmth and redness)
  • Joint pain
  • Joint stiffness which worsens in the mornings and after a period of inactivity
  • Fever, loss of appetite weakness, and fatigue
  • Muscle pain
  • Changes to the skin and nails

In the early stages of RA, you may notice its impact on your smaller joints- especially in your toes and fingers. And as this condition develops, your symptoms typically branch out to the bigger joints- your shoulders, ankles, knees, wrists, hips and elbows. Symptoms are likely to affect your joints bilaterally. Over time, RA also causes joints to deform and shift out of place.

Because RA is a systemic condition, it is estimated that approximately 40% of the RA population may experience symptoms and signs other body systems than the joints. These may include:

  • Kidneys, lungs, heart
  • Skin, eyes, mouth
  • Bone marrow
  • Nerves and blood vessels

 

 

Causes and Risk Factors

Your immune system is designed to help protect your body from infection and disease. However, in RA, changes occur in your immune system that (for poorly understood reasons), causes it to mistakenly attack the healthy soft-tissues of joints resulting in pain, swelling and inflammation. Because of this ongoing process, over time damages to the lining of your joints and other soft-tissues may lead to bone erosion and joint deformity. It can also have an impact on your heart, lungs, nerves, eyes and skin.

One can get RA at any age, although it is more probable to develop in those in the age bracket of 25-50 years old. Though rare, under 16s may also develop Juvenile RA or Still’s disease.

Risk factors for the development of RA include:

  • Family history of RA
  • Age bracket of 25-50 years old
  • Smoking
  • Women are more likely to develop RA than men
  • Obesity

 

 

 

Diagnosis

 

At present there is no single test to confirm a clinical RA diagnosis. It is often difficult to differentiate this condition in its initial stages from other forms of connective tissue inflammation (fibromyalgia, lupus, gout etc.).

Your doctor will get your full medical history (as well as any familial history of RA), discuss your signs and symptoms, undertake a physical assessment- particularly of your joints, and refer you on for imaging and blood tests. X-rays may help evaluate RA progression in your joints over time, whilst MRI and ultrasound imaging may help evaluate the severity of RA in your body. The blood test will evaluate your level of anti-bodies and proteins (including the rheumatoid factor protein that is present in approximately eighty percent of the RA population), and markers of inflammation.

 

 

Management

At present, though there is no cure for RA, a range of treatments are available which may help slow its’ progression and reduce pain and inflammation, minimise and/or prevent joint damage and maximise joint movement.

A combination of prescribed medication as advised by your doctor and other treatment options as noted below are recommended:

  • Cease smoking if you are smoker
  • Physiotherapy will help improve and maintain your joint range of motion, increase your muscle strength, and decrease your pain. Additionally, your physiotherapist or occupational therapist will be able to teach you ways of using your body efficiently to reduce stress on your joints
  • Finding a balance between rest and activity
  • Use of heat and cold packs to help ease pain and inflammation
  • The use of splints or braces for joint support as needed
  • Hydrotherapy- exercising in water reduces the pressure on your joints, whilst the warmth of the water will relax your muscles and help lessen your pain.
  • Seeking regular medical advice and check-ups to monitor your RA symptoms and the progression of the condition
  • Adopting a healthy and active lifestyle

Rotator cuff injury

Rotator cuff injuries are the most common source of shoulder problems. They can range from minor sprains causing impingement type symptoms, to massive tears resulting in severe loss of function and pain. They commonly occur as a result of acute injuries (sports, falls), chronic overuse (repetitive loading) or due to gradual aging.

Anatomy of shoulder

The shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) is the most mobile joint in the human body. It comprises of the humeral head (top portion of upper arm bone) which fits in the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade) to create a ball and socket configuration. This anatomical configuration results in limited bony contact between the humeral head and the glenoid fossa, which reduces the stability of the joint.

Several passive and active structures stabilize and maintain proper biomechanics of the shoulder joint.

  • Passive stabilizers include the ligaments, joint capsule, cartilage and the bony concavity of glenoid fossa. Thick cartilage known as labrum lines the glenoid fossa to further deepen the groove by about 50% which is advantageous in stabilizing the shoulder joint during the articulation.

  • Dynamic stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint is gained from the coordination of rotator cuff muscles that compress the passive structures providing stability and mobility as whole.

The rotator cuff muscles include:

  • supraspinatus

  • infraspinatus

  • subscapularis

  • teres minor

Rotator Cuff Disorders: The Facts | OrthoBethesda

 

 

Injury to any or all these four muscles, including the tendons that attach the muscles to bone can result movement dysfunction and severe pain.

Other important joints of the shoulder complex include:

  • sternoclavicular joint

  • arcomioclavicular joint

  • scapulothoracic joints

Types of rotator cuff pathology

Tendinitis and Tendinosis

More often than not the term tendinitis and tendinosis are interchangeably used to describe a similar tendon pathology. However, the factor that differentiates the two is the time of injury (acute or chronic).

Tendinitis results from acute injury to the tendon which sets off an inflammatory process characterized by pain, swelling, and redness. On the other hand, tendinosis is a chronic pathology that does not involve an inflammatory process. It is characterized by degeneration of collagen fibers in response to persistent micro-trauma, vascular compromise and aging.

Acute rotator cuff tear

  • Acute tears result from sudden forceful lifting of the arm against resistance or in an attempt to cushion a fall (for example, heavy lifting or a fall on the shoulder).

Chronic injuries

  • Most commonly resulting from occupational or sports requiring excessive repetitive overhead activity.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of a rotator cuff injury are due to the inflammation that accompanies the strain. Swelling that forms within the small space of the joint prevents the normal mechanics of the shoulder, resulting in the clinical picture of pain and decreased range of motion.

  • Acute rotator cuff tears
    Tearing sensation
    Immediate severe localised pain
    Reduced strength
    Symptomatic clicking
    Reduced and worsening pain with movements
    Affects daily activities (personal care, lifting, reaching etc)

  • Chronic rotator cuff tears
    Generalized deep dull ache, sharp onset of pain with movements
    Global shoulder weakness
    Reduced movements and daily activities (especially moving to the side, reaching behind back)

When to seek medical treatment

See your doctor or a physiotherapist if you experience any of the following symptoms in the shoulder:

  • Pain, especially pain that does not improve with rest

  • Swelling, redness or tenderness around the joint

  • Shoulder weakness

  • Reduced shoulder movement

For more severe rotator cuff injuries, you may require immediate medical attention.

Seek immediate medical attention if you experience the following symptoms:

  • Sudden, severe pain

  • Visible joint deformity

  • Inability to move or use your shoulder joint

  • Sudden swelling, discoloration

Diagnosis

To diagnoses an injured rotator cuff, your physiotherapist will begin with a thorough subjective and physical examination of your shoulder.

  • Subjective assessment

Your physiotherapist will begin with a thorough subjective assessment inquiring about your signs and symptoms of an acute injury as well as any symptoms that may suggest a more long-term problem.

  • Physical assessment

The physical examination often involves observation to look for muscle wasting, deformities, and/or changes in appearance of the injured shoulder to the unaffected side. Your physiotherapist will also palpate different areas of the shoulder complex to find the area of pain or tenderness. Further examination will involve assessment of movement and strength to establish injury to muscles or tendons.

  • Radiology

In addition, your physiotherapist may refer you for imaging tests to diagnosis the cause of your symptoms:

  • Ultrasound: examines soft-tissue structures (muscles, tendons, bursa)

  • X-rays: examines bone health, calcification

  • MRI: provides detailed imaging of areas injured (referred by doctors, specialists or surgeons)

Treatment

Early diagnosis and treatment of a rotator cuff tear may prevent symptoms such as loss of strength and loss of motion from setting in.

Initial treatment of rotator cuff tendinitis involves managing pain and swelling to promote healing. This can be done by:

  • avoiding activities that cause pain

  • applying cold packs to your shoulder three to four times per day

  • taking anti-inflammatory medications like ibuprofen and naproxen

Rehabilitation plays a critical role in both the nonsurgical and surgical treatment of a rotator cuff tear.

When a tear occurs, there is frequently atrophy of the muscles around the arm and loss of motion of the shoulder. An individualized physiotherapy program is necessary to regain strength and improve function in the shoulder.

Physical therapy

Physiotherapy will initially consist of passive exercises to help restore range of motion and ease pain.

Once the pain is under control, your physiotherapist will prescribe exercises to help regain strength in your arm and shoulder.

Steroid injection

If you have persisting symptoms, your physiotherapist may recommend a steroid injection. This is injected into the tendon to reduce inflammation, which reduces pain.

Surgery

Surgery is recommended if you have persistent pain or weakness in your shoulder that does not improve with nonsurgical treatment. In which case, your physiotherapist will refer you to surgeon for an opinion of surgical intervention.

Exercises

Range of movement exercise

Pendulums

  1. Lean forward with one arm hanging freely. Use your unaffected arm to brace against a chair for support.

  2. With your affected side, gently swing the hanging arm from side to side, forward and back, and in a circular motion for 15-20 seconds each direction.

  3. Slowly return to a standing position.

  4. Repeat 4-5 times a day

 

Shoulder pulley (Flexion)

  1. Put a chair against the door and sit so you are facing away from the door.

  2. Grasp the door pulley handles with both hands.

  3. Pull down on the pulley with your unaffected arm. This will lift your injured arm up over your head. Pull it as high as you can.

  4. DO NOT FORCE THE MOVEMENT. Your affected arm should be relaxed. The unaffected arm does the work.

Hold for 5 seconds. Relax and repeat 10-15 times, 3 sets.
Three times a day.

Shoulder pulley (Abduction)

  1. Put a chair against the door and sit so you are facing away from the door.

  2. Using door pulleys slowly pull down with your unaffected arm so that your affected arm raises up and to the side without effort.

  3. Your affected arm should be relaxed. The unaffected arm does the work.

Hold for 5 seconds. Relax and repeat 10-15 times, 3 sets.
Three times a day.

Wand flexion

  1. Stand upright and hold a stick in both hands

  2. Cup the top end of stick with affected hand

  3. Using your unaffected arm hold the stick midway and drive the affected arm forward and up.

  4. Ensure your elbow is straight throughout

  5. Hold for 5 seconds and return to the starting position.

  6. Repeat 10 times.

Wand Abduction

  1. Stand upright and hold a stick in both hands

  2. Cup the top end of stick with affected hand

  3. Using your unaffected arm hold the stick midway and drive the affected to the side as high as able.

  4. Ensure your elbow is straight throughout.

  5. Hold for 5 seconds and return to the starting position.

  6. Repeat 10 times.

Strengthening exercises with band

Flexion

  1. Stand on one end of the band while holding the other end with your affected side.

  2. Whilst keeping your elbow straight, lift the band up to 90 degrees to shoulder level.

  3. Hold at the top for 1-2 seconds then lower slowly to starting position.

  4. Repeat 10-15 repetitions, rest 20-25 seconds, complete 3 sets.

Abduction

  1. Stand on the band while holding the band with affected hand.

  2. Keep your elbow straight, lift the band up to 90 degrees to shoulder level.

  3. Hold at the top for 1-2 seconds then lower slowly to starting position.

  4. Repeat 10-15 repetitions, rest 20-25 seconds, complete 3 sets.

External Rotation

  1. Attach the resistance band to a secure anchor at belly button height.

  2. Stand with unaffected arm perpendicular to the anchor.

  3. Place a towel between your elbow and your torso to stabilize your elbow

  4. Grab the band using your affected side and then slow pull the band away from your body by squeezing your shoulder blade in towards the middle of your back.

  5. Slowly return to starting position.

  6. Repeat 10-15 repetitions, rest 20-25 seconds, complete 3 sets.

Internal Rotation

  1. Attach the resistance band to a secure anchor at belly button height.

  2. Stand with affected arm perpendicular to the anchor.

  3. Place a towel between your elbow and your torso to stabilize your elbow

  4. Grab the band using your affected side and then slow pull in to your body

  5. Slowly return to starting position.

  6. Repeat 10-15 repetitions, rest 20-25 seconds, complete 3 sets.

Ankle injuries – Your first step to recovery

Common? Oh Yes!

The ankle is the most commonly injured joint in sport. This does not exclude other people such as active hikers, beach goers and even your average Sunday stroller. Good news though – your ankle injury is highly likely to be uncomplicated.

It is still vital that your ankle is examined, evaluated and treated early. This will ensure a swift return to activity and prevent further complications.

 

The road to recovery

Planning for Resiliency and the Road to Recovery

Your clinician will ask you some questions related to how you injured your ankle, pain, instability and any past episodes of injury. The earlier you get your ankle checked, the sooner your recovery will begin.

Keeping a mental note of things like initial pain, swelling, ability to walk and balance will go a long way in assisting your clinician to making an accurate diagnosis.

 

Investigations

Ankle x-rays

In most cases, initial X – rays are done to rule out broken bones.

Ultrasounds can be used to diagnose some ligament and tendon damage.

MRI is the best form of imaging but this does come at a higher cost and higher exposure to radiation. These are usually done after failed conservative treatment or in instances where pain remains high for longer periods.

A CT scan is helpful with complicated foot and ankle fractures. It will normally be ordered by a specialist surgeon who is planning for an operation.

 

What to look out for

Ankle sprains:

This is normally a twisting injury that causes a stretch or tear of ligaments surrounding the ankle. Your health care professional will provide you with all the information and tools you need for recovery.

These heal relatively quickly when the outside border of the foot is affected and a little slower when the inside border of the ankle is affected.

You will normally feel pain on certain ankle movements, stiffness in the ankle and experience some swelling and bruising.

Ankle - Wikipedia

 

Ankle Fractures:

These normally present with swelling, bruising and pain initially – although not always. In some cases, it is too painful to put weight on the ankle.

They are usually best confirmed with X – ray and specialist referral.

Management may be surgical or non-surgical depending on the severity and site of the fracture.

Fractures generally take longer to recover compared to sprains.

 

What treatment to expect

Foot and Ankle Doctor | EmergeOrtho—Triangle Region

Acute phase:

Your healthcare professional will normally initiate techniques to minimise your pain and swelling with rest, ice, compression and elevation.

Analgesia and anti – inflammatory medication may also be used.

Strapping may be used for stability at this stage and can be done by your physiotherapist.

You will also be encouraged to increase movement and begin strengthening.

 

Rehabilitation phase:

Balance and proprioceptive exercises will be given to you by your physiotherapist.

Strengthening will continue and running will start soon.

Once running in a linear motion pain free, you will progress to sport specific exercises.

Finally, you will return to sport or previous function such as trekking with a graded program.

Strapping may continue for up to 12 months after your injury in order to prevent re–injury.

 

What can you do on the day of the injury?

Rest by reducing time spent walking or standing. This will help the ankle to heal.

Ice the ankle for up to 20 minutes every couple of hours.

Compress the ankle with a firm bandage during the day and remove the bandage at night.

Elevate the leg.

Attempt circulatory exercises such as ankle circles and foot pumps (About 10 – 30 repetitions every couple of hours).

Contact your health professional or physiotherapist in order to make appointment for assessment.

If you are unable to stand on your leg or have excruciating pain in the ankle, head on to the local emergency department for immediate investigation.

 

Remember, your injury will heal and you will recover!

 

To find your nearest Physio Fusion clinic and book an appointment call 09 6266186 or visit our website https://physiofusion.co.nz

We Want You To Understand Your Pain

What is pain?

Pain is the brain giving out a message to protect you . It is part of our bodies natural defense system.

When an event occurs that we need protecting from, our brains response is to increase our pain. Living things detect and respond to stimulus. | Characteristics of living  things, Natural hairstyles for kids, Characteristics

Example: Putting a hand on a hot pan. You feel pain, which is the brain giving you a warning signal to move your hand away.

Pain is all about protection, never about measuring the condition of the tissues in the body.

In this instance we experience a high level of pain to prevent a bigger injury eg. causing a burn.

This is our bodies way of protecting us

So what is happening in our brain?

  • We as human beings are amazingly adaptable. The longer we have pain, the longer our brains learn to produce pain.

  • It hurts in the tissues (back, knee, hand), but the problem is in the nervous system. There is an adaptation within our nervous system.

Long term pain or Chronic pain

Chronic pain is defined as persistent or recurrent pain lasting longer than 3 months

If you have had pain for more than 3 months, your system is now overprotective. Your nervous system and immune systems have learnt.

 

Movement is medicine: why exercise therapy reduces chronic pain - Hinge  Health

 

  • With chronic pain the buffer size is increased- therefore pain comes on quicker than before.

  • You get pain when you are not anywhere near being in danger.

Management of chronic pain:

  • Identify why your brain is protecting you – fear, anxiety, quality of movement, posture, injury

  • Reduce the size of your buffer – desensitization, reassurance, progressive load management

  • Understand your pain- know that it may not go completely, but can become more manageable

Medication:

  • Depending on the type of pain you are experiencing, painkillers/NSAID’s may be beneficial in the short term – speak to your GP/pharmacist

  • Note: the research does not show good outcomes for the long-term use of medication to treat chronic pain.

Occupational Therapy:

  • If you have been off work because of your pain – try to return to work asap. An OT can discuss and plan a gradual return to work plan for you

  • They can also assist by providing aids to helps with daily tasks such as getting out of bed, or putting on shoes.

Physiotherapy:

  • There is no quick fix for persistent pain. We can help guide you along your journey to recovery

  • With persistence and hard work you can learn to adapt and cope with your pain

  • Movement is king – it is critical for retraining the system

  • Movement gradually suppresses the pain system.

  • Finding any form of exercise or movement that you enjoy and gradually increasing the volume over time

  • Moving regularly- on your good days and your bad days

Self Help:

  • Meditation or mindfulness – Apps such as Headspace or Calm are easy to use and will guide you through the process

  • The Pain ToolKit

Pressure on the Spine in Different Posture

Did You Know?

 

Low back pain is a common health problem which affects up to 80% of the population at some stage in their life.

 

In New Zealand ACC spends in excess of $130 million a year treating back pain related injuries.

Most back pain occurs between the ages of 25 and 60, and most typically in the 40s.

 

 

 

In an era of smart devices, posture has never been more important or harder to achieve. As technology continues to grow, sitting at a desk on a computer or on our phones is becoming more prevalent at work. Having a sedentary desk job can result in sitting for around 8 hours a day. This position actually increases the load on your spine more than standing. Spinal pressure “sits” around 140mm pressure. This pressure usually does not hurt the back right away however, builds up over time and can even change the structure structure of your spine. So, if you slouch then spinal pressure increases to 190mm; add some weight and you’ve put 275 pounds of pressure on your spine.

 

A compromised spine constricts your blood vessels and nerves, causing problems with your muscles, discs, and joints. And all of these problems can lead to headaches, fatigue, and even breathing problems. Your back is a delicate machine. When one part falls out of alignment, it can affect everything setting off a domino effect and wreak havoc throughout your back and body.

 

 


Below is a graph showing different postures and the pressure it exerts on the spine;


But, remember: While you may feel comfortable and supported in your chair and find a perfect sitting posture, staying in the same position for long periods is not healthy for your spine. Varying your postures by occasionally standing and moving around for at least a few minutes each half hour will help keep your spinal joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments loose and pain free.

 

Stand Up for Your Spine

If you don’t have a sit-stand desk, you can still combat “sitting disease” and protect your spine. Consider these tips:

  • Do some work standing at a high table or counter.

  • Use a lumbar roll behind your back when sitting to improve seated posture

  • Set a timer on your computer for a stand-and-stretch break every 30 minutes.

  • Exercise to assist in improving body weight to lessen additional load on the spine

  • Strengthen the core to provide additional support

The focus is simple: Reduce your sitting throughout the day. But, remember that varying postures is best for your back and neck, so do not go the opposite extreme and never sit. Alternating sitting, standing and movement throughout your day is the best way you can keep your spine safe and body healthy—at work and beyond

 

Still having back pain?

Schedule an initial assessment with one of our Physiotherapists so they can determine the root of the problem.  During this assessment your physiotherapist will be able to decide whether your pain is a source of nerve root irritation, discogenic, postural related, or musculoskeletal.  After arriving with the consensus of the problem, we will be able to use many techniques to relieve the back pain.  These include: manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, and postural recommendations.

 

To find your nearest Physio Fusion clinic and book an appointment call 09 6266186 or visit our website https://physiofusion.co.nz

Do you experience Cervicogenic Headaches?

What on Earth is a cervicogenic headache??

Headaches happen for lots of reason and can be cause by several sources- both primary and secondary. Once major “red flags” are ruled out, understanding the type of headache is important in order to have it properly addressed.

A cervicogenic headache is a secondary headache arising from a musculoskeletal dysfunction within the cervical spine, and is a disorder that many physiotherapists treat. The main players that are typically involved in generating the pain are the joints, discs, ligaments, nerves and/or muscles found in the upper portion of the neck.

Characteristics of a Cervicogenic Headache:

:sparkles: Pain usually one sided or one side dominant

:sparkles: Pain originates from the back of the neck and radiates along the forehead, orbits around the eye, temple area and ear.

:sparkles: Steady ache or dull, diffuse pain that travels into shoulder region

:sparkles: Limited neck movement especially when turning head

:sparkles: Tenderness to touch at the muscles at the base of the head.

Here are some exercises that would help alleviate your pain:

  1. Cervical side flexion with chin tuck

  • Sit upright in a chair.
    With your shoulders relaxed, relax one arm to your side.
    Drop your opposite ear to your shoulder until a stretch is felt.
    Using your fingers, tuck your chin in, as to resemble a double chin.
    Gently release pressure with your fingers and hold this position.
    Relax and repeat

2. Levator stretch Neck stretch – levator scapula

  • Start in a seated position.
    Place the hand of the side you want to stretch down by your side.
    Tilt your head forwards and to the opposite side at an angle, as if you are trying to
    look at your armpit.
    Keeping your back straight and upright, continue to tilt your head down until you
    feel a stretch from the base of your skull down into your shoulder blade.

3. Neck stretching (Upper trapezius)

 

  • Stand up straight.
    Take the hand on the symptomatic side and place it behind your back.
    Take your other hand and place it on your head.
    Tilt your ear directly down towards your shoulder and hold this position.
    You should feel a stretch down the side of your neck.

If you believe you experience Cervicogenic Headaches get in touch with us https://physiofusion.co.nz/ for an in-depth assessment and lets knock out those headaches and decrease you dependence on pain meds

How to stay Healthy and Sane during Lockdown

 

The restrictions and change brought by the outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in a great deal of control being taken from our hands; this has been anxiety provoking for many of us. Nevertheless, it’s important to re-evaluate, acknowledge and place focus upon the matters that we DO have control over so that we can gain our personal power back!

 

Lockdown Productivity Tips

 

 

Check in with yourself: how is your body and mind feeling. Embrace your emotions and give yourself permission to feel the way toy do.

:large_blue_diamond: Stay connected: Social connection is inevitably limited at the moment but catching up with people via text or facetime will help prevent feelings of isolation.

:large_blue_diamond: Maintain some form of routine: Maintaining a routine helps provide some structure do days which often all seem to merge into one.

:large_blue_diamond: Get fresh air where possible: Daily fresh air can provide an easy change of scenery when we are stuck at home most of the day.

:large_blue_diamond: Gentle exercise is a MUST!

:large_blue_diamond: Stay Hydrated: Drinking enough water is important to keep your body hydrated and makes sure your body functions properly.

:large_blue_diamond: Eat well- You’d be surprised how your diet can affect how you feel. Gut health in particular is linked to mental health.

:large_blue_diamond: Get to that “thing” you’ve been delaying for months

:large_blue_diamond: Pick up a good book

:large_blue_diamond: Learn new habits or rediscover old ones

:sparkles: These may seem like simple strategies but sometimes it’s the simple things that are most effective :sparkles:

“One day this will all be over and we will be grateful for life in ways we never felt possible”

The gratitude we will have for the things we once took for granted will be unmeasurable- getting on a plane, an impromptu visit to the cinema, a shopping spree, going to the gym, even meeting a friend for lunch at a café. Keep going, nothing lasts forever and we have so much to look forward to. In the mean time take each day as it comes, be kind, support those who are struggling and keep going! You are stronger and more resilient than you know!